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Independent Professional: Experienced educator and management consultant for engineering educational institutions, researcher, trainer, technical consultant on sustainable technologies, related to cement manufacturing and characterisation, using industrial and agricultural wastes in cement and concrete, durability of concrete and fuel cell power.

Tuesday, September 29, 2009

Climate negotiating position of the world's top emitters

The following are the negotiating positions of the world's top five greenhouse gas emitters with regard to the new U.N. pact for combating climate change to be agreed in Copenhagen in December 2009:

CHINA (GHG Emissions: 6.8 billion t/a, 5.5 t per capita)

The "carbon intensity" goal is the first measurable curb on national emissions for China. China would try to raise the share of non-fossil fuels in primary energy consumption to 15 percent by 2020. China wants developed nations to cut their greenhouse gas emissions by at least 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and to give far more aid and green technologies to developing nations.

UNITED STATES (6.4 billion t/a, 21.2 t per capita)

US President Barack Obama wants to cut U.S. emissions back to 1990 levels by 2020 and by 80 percent below 1990 levels by 2050. For 2020, that means a 14 percent cut from 2007 levels.

The bill passed by the U.S. House of Representatives in June 2009 would require large companies, inluding utilities, oil refiners and others, to cut emissions by 17 percent by 2020 and 83 perrcent by 2050, from 2005 levels. The US feels we cannot meet the challenge unless all the largest emitters of greenhouse gas pollution act together.

EUROPEAN UNION (5.03 billion tonnes, 10.2 tonnes per capita)

The EU leaders agreed in December 2008 to cut emissions by 20 percent below 1990 levels by 2020 and by 30 percent if other developed nations follow suit.

They agreed that developing nations will need about 100 billion euros ($146.8 billion) a year by 2020 to help them curb emissions and adapt to changes such as floods or heatwaves. As an advance payment, they suggest 5-7 billion a year between 2010 and 2012.

The EU wants developing nations to curb the rise of their emissions by 15 to 30 percent below a trajectory of "business as usual" by 2020.

RUSSIA (1.7 billion t/a, 11.9 t per capita)

Russia's emissions would be around 10 to 15 percent below 1990 levels by 2020. That means a rise from now -- emissions were 34 percent below 1990 levels in 2007.

Russia would reject any new climate pact that imposed restrictions on Russia but did not bind other big polluters such as the United States or China.

INDIA (1.4 billion t/a, 1.2 t per capita)

India is prepared to quantify the amount of greenhouse gas emissions it could cut with domestic actions to fight climate change, but will not accept internationally binding targets. India has said its per capita emissions will never rise to match those of developed nations.

Like China, India wants developed nations to cut emissions by at least 40 percent by 2020, saying they are most responsible for emissions since the Industrial Revolution.

JAPAN (1.4 billion t/a, 11.0 t per capita)

The New Prime Minister Yukio Hatoyama wants to cut Japan's emissions by 25 percent below 1990 levels by 2020.

Japan is prepared to offer more financial and technical assistance than in the past, in accordance with the progress of the international negotiations.